A micro-phenomenological exploration of time-perception tasks

Participants

Federica Cavaletti (Interacting Minds Centre, Aarhus University, Denmark)

Katrin Heimann (Interacting Minds Centre, Aarhus University, Denmark)

 
Contact

Cavaletti Federica <federica.cavaletti@unicatt.it>

Katrin Heimann <katrinheimann@gmail.com>

Financement
 
Statut 

Ungoing

 

Résumé

Temporal distortions in people suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, have long been observed in phenomenological psychiatry, with research into this topic dating back to the first half of the last century (Straus 1928; Minkowski 1933). Depressed time, for instance, was mainly described in terms of slowness, delay or stillness arising from a lack of future orientation. Contemporary accounts tend to confirm this conceptualization, while stressing the role of the environment in shaping such temporal attitude (Fuchs 2001, 2013; Ratcliffe 2012, 2015).

With the increasing success of empirical methods of research, these and similar theoretical assumptions have started being put to test experimentally by means of a variety of tasks and procedures (e.g. Mezey and Cohen 1961; Wyrick and Wyrick 1977; Kitamura and Kumar 1982; Münzel et al. 1988; Sévigny et al. 2003; Mahlberg 2008; Oberfeld et al. 2014; Mioni et al. 2016). Strikingly, however, the resulting empirical findings are largely inconsistent. In consequence, the idea of a radically peculiar temporal experience characterizing depression has often been discarded as a commonplace belief that has failed the test of rigorous empirical validation.

The aim of our research is to challenge this skeptical view. The deviative character of depressive time, we claim, might indeed be empirically captured and specified if the tasks and procedures employed to do so undergo a serious methodological validation.

In the existing empirical studies, duration estimation and time passage perception tasks play a crucial role. The two types of task have been frequently used interchangeably in the early as well as in the most recent experimental practice (Mahlberg 2008). However, as we thoroughly argue elsewhere (Cavaletti and Heimann, accepted in Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences), a rigorous theoretical reflection about the supposed equivalence of DE and TPP tasks? has been missing. At the same time, both common sense and scientific evidence suggest on the contrary that the two might correspond to different aspects of time perception, or at least interact in complex and non-trivial ways.

The lack of clarity about DE and TPP tasks respectively and about the relation of the processes they trigger as well as the processes they actually want to assess is likely to introduce uncontrolled forms of bias in the study of time perception in general. Also, and more in particular, it might be part of the problem when it comes to the inconsistency of the studies about the experience of time in depression. Therefore, a preliminary effort should be put in better defining these two types of procedures and the aspects of time perception they tackle in ordinary time perception in the first place. The experiment we designed is directed precisely at paving the way in this direction.

 
Publications

Cavaletti, F., Heimann, K. (Forthcoming). Longing for Tomorrow. Phenomenology, Cognitive Psychology, and the Methodological Bases of Exploring Time Experience in Depression. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

 

Mis à jour le 8/11/2018

Developing a micro-phenomenology of emotion for affective science

Participants

Emily Hammond, PhD researcher, University of Exeter, UK

Contact

Emily Hammond: e.r.hammond@exeter.ac.uk

 
Funding

Economic and Social Research Council PhD studentship

Mind and Life Institute Francisco J. Varela Award

 

Status

Ongoing

 

Summary

What is it like to experience emotion? The question is a deceptively simple one. Affectivity is a fundamental aspect of how we experience the world, yet curiously, detailed experiential accounts of emotion and affect are lacking from the empirical literature in affective science. The measurement of subjective experience – the feeling of emotion - is often restricted to self-reported ratings of researcher-selected emotion terms such as ‘elation’, ‘sadness’ or ‘pleasantness’, which limits the scope for exploring phenomenological nuance and depth. This project considers how micro-phenomenology might contribute to this open question for affective science through two strands of work: empirical investigation into the fine-grained phenomenological features of emotion, and methodological work to establish concrete steps towards effectively applying the micro-phenomenological technique in experimental research. The overarching intention behind the project is to begin to identify ways in which fuller, body-mind accounts of emotion might be developed within basic emotion science for application to translational research on affective disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder.  

 
Communications

Hammond E. (2016). Why we need a phenomenology of emotion in translational affective science. Talk given at the Mind and Life International Symposium for Contemplative Studies, San Diego, 10-13 November 2016.

Hammond E. (2016). Developing a micro-phenomenology of emotion for affective science: some reflections on methodology in practice. Talk given at advanced micro-phenomenology workshop led by Professor Claire Petitmengin, 26-30 September 2016.

Hammond E. (2016). Transcending the natural attitude? Possibilities and limitations of empirical phenomenology. Talk given at the Sussex Phenomenology Graduate Conference, University of Sussex, 23-24 June 2016.

Updated on 1/12/2016

EMPHILINE

La surprise au sein de la spontanéité des émotions : un vecteur de cognition élargie

Participants

Natalie Depraz (UMR 8547, Pays germaniques, histoire, culture et philosophie (ENS-CNRS) Archives-Husserl)

Agnès Celle et Pascale Goutéraux (CLILLAC-ARP, EA 3967, Université Paris-Diderot)

Vincent Camus et Thomas Desmidt (INSERM U930, ERL CNRS 30106 Equipe 4, Troubles affectifs)

Contact

Natalie Depraz : pr.natalie.depraz@gmail.com

Financement

ANR (2012 - 2015)

 
Statut 

En cours (depuis 2012)

 

Résumé

Emphiline est un projet de recherche qui a pour thème la surprise et la dépression dans leurs composantes émotionnelle, cognitive, corporelle et langagière. Nous avons croisé une méthodologie en troisième personne (dispositif expérimental physiologique de génération de la surprise) et une méthodologie en première personne (entretiens d'explicitation ou micro-phénoménologiques). Sur la base de l’analyse de 42 entretiens croisés avec l’analyse des mesures physiologiques (FC, FR, pulsatilité cérébrale, conductance cutanée, EEG), nous avons cherché à confirmer l’hypothèse selon laquelle la surprise, loin de se réduire à un choc-sursaut, s’inscrit dans un processus micro-temporel en trois phases que sont l’anticipation implicite, la crise et le contrecoup, et qu’elle se déploie ainsi sur le fond de deux structures principales que sont l’attention, sa condition, et l’émotion, son implication.

Ce projet a débouché sur des réalisations concrètes: ouvrages multidisciplinaires, protocole expérimental en physiologie cardiovasculaire, gestion de la dépression ainsi que des avancées dans l’usage croisé de la méthode micro-phénoménologique en première personne et de l’analyse des données en troisième personne, qui permet de proposer une extension de la neurophénoménologie en direction d’une "cardiophénoménologie".

 

Publications

Articles empiriques :

1) Th. Desmidt, M. Lemoine, C. Belzung & N. Depraz, « The temporal dynamic of emotional emergence », Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, Emotion Special Issue, 2014, Springer, Heidelberg.

2) N. Depraz & Th. Desmidt, « Cardio-phénoménologie », in: La naturalisation de la phénoménologie 20 après, J.-L. Petit éd., Cahiers philosophiques de Strasbourg n°38, 2015.

3) N. Depraz & Th. Desmidt, « Cardiophenomenology : an extension of neurophenomenology : preliminary results », Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 2017, Springer, Heidelberg (in course of revision).

4) N. Depraz, M. Gyemant, Th. Desmidt, « First person data analysis: a generative method using third person data. Surprise and depression: A case study », Seminar « Neurophenomenology: building a science of experience », 21-22 January 2016, org. C. Valenzuela-Moguillansky, Santiago, Chile, submitted to the Journal of Constructivist Foundations.

Description plus exhaustive du projet

Mis à jour le 2/01/2017

L'anticipation des crises d'épilepsie

Participants

Vincent Navarro (Unité d'Epilepsie et Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et Imagerie Cérébrale (LENA) CNRS UPR 640), Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris), Michel Le Van Quyen (Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et Imagerie Cérébrale (LENA) CNRS UPR 640, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris), Claire Petitmengin (Institut Mines-Télécom, Télécom EM et Ecole Polytechnique, CREA)

 

Financement

LENA, Unité d'Epilepsie

 

Statut

terminé en 2003

 

Résumé

Dans le contexte de l'équipe de Francisco Varela (Neurosciences Cognitives et Imagerie cérébrale, CNRS) à l'hôpital de la Salpêtrière à Paris, nous avons mené des entretiens micro-phénoménologiques avec des patients épileptiques, qui les ont conduit à prendre conscience de signes précoces annonçant l'arrivée d'une crise. Ce résultat confirme sur le plan expérientiel ce qui avait été découvert au niveau neuronal : les crises d'épilepsie n'arrivent pas "comme un éclair dans l'azur", mais sont l'aboutissement d'un processus qui commence longtemps avant. La conscience de cette microgenèse est la clé de nouvelles thérapies non pharmacologiques de l'épilepsie, dont les résultats sont souvent meilleurs que ceux des traitements pharmacologiques les plus performants.     

 

Publications

Le Van Quyen M., Petitmengin C. (2002). Neuronal dynamics and conscious experience: an example of reciprocal causation before epileptic seizures. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 1: 169-180.

Petitmengin C. (2005). Un exemple de recherche neuro-phénoménologique : l'anticipation des crises d'épilepsie. Intellectica 40: 63-89.

Petitmengin C., Navarro V., Baulac M. (2006). Seizure Anticipation: Are Neuro-phenomenological Approaches Able to Detect Preictal Symptoms? Epilepsy and Behavior 9: 298-306.

Petitmengin C. (2010). A neuro-phenomenological study of epileptic seizure anticipation. In Schmicking D. and Gallagher S. (ed.), Handbook of Phenomenology and Cognitive Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 471-499.

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